One Easy Change to Sound More Fluent in English


English has many vowels that are not present in other world languages. Take for example the difference between /u/, as is found in words like “boot”, “Luke”, and “food”, and compare it with /ʊ/, which is found in words like “book”, “look”, and “foot”. Have you ever wondered how English speakers make these sound more fluent? and sound fluent in English? Then you’ve come to the right place!


The /u/ sound is common in many languages around the world, and chances are you have some variation of it in your own language. /ʊ/ — not so much! So if you find this sound fluent difficult, you are NOT alone! But don’t worry, we are going to walk through how you make these sounds and feel comfortable to sound more fluent in English

If you read my previous post about the vowels /i, ɪ, ɛ, and æ/, you’ll remember I talked about noticing how open or closed your jaw is, with

  • /i/ and /ɪ/ = high jaw position
  • /ɛ/ = mid jaw position 
  • and /æ/ = low jaw position

What position is your jaw for the /u/ sound? If you guessed high, then you are correct! Also notice that the lips are round. These rounded lips are a key feature of pronouncing /u/!

For /ʊ/, the jaw position is high like /u/, but the lips are more relaxed and less round than they are for /u/.

We talk about jaw height because we don’t want to drop the jaw down for /ʊ/ — otherwise you’ll end up with more of an “uh” sound (written as /ʌ/).

Saying “I have a thousand books” (high jaw position) is VERY different from saying “I have a thousand bucks” (mid jaw position)!!!


Try saying the following word groups, remembering the following to sound more fluent:

  • /u/. High jaw position, rounded lips
  • /ʊ/. High jaw position, relaxed lips
  • /ʌ/. Mid jaw position, relaxed lips


  • Luke — /u/
  • Look — /ʊ/
  • Luck — /ʌ/


  • Boot — /u/
  • Book — /ʊ/
  • Buck — /ʌ/


  • Shoot — /u/
  • Should — /ʊ/
  • Shut — /ʌ/


Alright, can you now hear, see, and feel the difference? If so and you want to practice making these sound more fluent, I usually recommend starting small with the individual sound fluent in English, then building your way up to short words and then sentences.

Try these in front of a mirror so you can watch that your jaw stays high and that your lip shape changes from round for /u/ to relaxed for /ʊ/



One final question I often get from my students about these sounds is “How do I know when to use which sound? You said that “boot” is pronounced with an /u/ sound more fluent, and that “book” is pronounced with an /ʊ/ sound, but both are spelled “oo”! What’s going on?”

Unfortunately, as you may have learned or will come to learn with continued practice in English pronunciation, you CAN NOT trust spelling.

My two biggest tips are to sound more fluent:

  1. Listen closely to native speakers. Now that you know there is a difference and how we as English speakers sound fluent makes the difference in terms of how they sound fluent and look, you should now be better able to identify which sound to use when
  2. Look at the pronunciation guide in most English dictionaries. Did you ever notice that they use funny symbols? They often use what is called the International Phonetic Alphabet, which allows us to clearly write each individual sound of a word given that unfortunately English spelling is not reliable! Look and see if the dictionary writes /u/ or /ʊ/ in the pronunciation guide — this will tell you for sure which one to use in which words!

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Picture of Gabby Wallace, M.Ed TESOL

Gabby Wallace, M.Ed TESOL

About the Author
Gabby Wallace is the Founder of Go Natural English, where you can quickly improve your confidence speaking English through advanced fluency practice. Even if you don't have much time, this is the best place for improving your English skills. Millions of global intermediate - advanced English students are learning with Gabby's inspiring, clear, and energetic English lessons. Gabby has a Masters Degree in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages from Boston University and 20+ years experience helping students become fluent through her online courses and membership program.

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